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How Feminism Killed the Neanderthals

echidneofthesnakess Icon Posted by Echidne of the Snakes

November 10th, 2007

The Boston Globe headline screams: “Stone Age feminism? Females joining hunt may explain Neanderthals’ end.” There you have it. Feminism kills species. That is one of the few horrible things I had not yet heard attributed to feminism. And to find it among the science news of the major newspapers! Perhaps we should dispense with that ridiculous idea of gender-equality. For the good of the homo sapiens, you know.

Not so fast. How on earth do anthropologists study Neanderthal feminism? I thought that all the information we have consists of whatever may have survived to this day from various random archeological sites? What is this study all about?

The New York Times science section gives us a synopsis:

A new explanation for the demise of the Neanderthals, the stockily built human species that occupied Europe until the arrival of modern humans 45,000 years ago, has been proposed by two anthropologists at the University of Arizona.

Unlike modern humans, who had developed a versatile division of labor between men and women, the entire Neanderthal population seems to have been engaged in a single main occupation, the hunting of large game, the scientists, Steven L. Kuhn and Mary C. Stiner, say in an article posted online yesterday in Current Anthropology.

Because modern humans exploited the environment more efficiently, by having men hunt large game and women gather small game and plant foods, their populations would have outgrown those of the Neanderthals.

The Neanderthals endured for about 100,000 years, despite a punishing way of life. They preyed on the large animals that flourished in Europe in the ice age like bison, deer, gazelles and wild horses. But there is no evidence that they knew of bows and arrows. Instead, they used stone-tipped spears.

Hunting large game at close range is perilous, and Neanderthal skeletons bear copious fractures. Dr. Kuhn and Dr. Stiner argue that Neanderthal women and children took part in the dangerous hunts, probably as beaters and blockers of exit routes.

Their argument, necessarily indirect, begins with the human hunter-gatherer societies, almost all of which have a division of labor between the sexes.

At sites occupied by modern humans from 45,000 to 10,000 years ago, a period known as the Upper Paleolithic, there is good evidence of different occupations, from small animal and bird remains, as well as the bone awls and needles used to make clothes. It seems reasonable to assume that these activities were divided between men and women, as is the case with modern foraging peoples.

But Neanderthal sites include no bone needles, no small animal remains and no grinding stones for preparing plant foods. So what did Neanderthal women do all day?

Their skeletons are so robustly built that it seems improbable that they just sat at home looking after the children, the anthropologists write. More likely, they did the same as the men, with the whole population engaged in bringing down large game.

There you have it. The actual evidence is the absence (so far) of bone needles and awls, grinding stones and small animal remains. Oh, and the chunkiness of the Neanderthal ladies. If they were so chunky and had nothing to do all day, surely they must have participated in big game hunting, even when hugely pregnant. Yes, and the children, too! Then the big game turned and gored them and the Neanderthals died out. Well, they did survive for, like, 100,000 years, in a harsh environment. But clearly it was feminism that did them in. And the lesson we are to learn from this?

I leave it to you, my smart readers. But should you not quite get it, have a look at the drawing the New York Times decided to append to the story. It shows all the Neanderthals going big-game hunting, even the teeny-weeny ones who look scared while holding on to their militant mothers.

Isn’t science wonderful? From a few scraps of evidence, or rather, from the lack of such evidence, we can create a story (though we do need to add a few “it seems reasonable”, “necessarily indirect” and “it seems improbable”) about the gendered division of labor among early humans and the lack of the same among the Neanderthals and we can make this story explain why feminism is a bad thing.

These popularizations of gender research always leave me stunned, and I suspect that’s one of their intentions. The other one is to avoid pointing out the obvious: We have no knowledge of the division of labor among Neanderthals.

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